Landsborough was named for the British born explorer William Landsborough, who was the first European to cross Australia north to south. The earliest European settlers arrived in the area in 1871. Originally called Mellum Creek (mellum is Aboriginal for volcano), it dates from 1871 when Isaac Burgess erected a slab hut with a bark roof as ‘port of call’ for the Cobb & Co coaches stopping for refreshments and a change of horses on their way to and from the Gympie goldfields to the north.

The Mellum Creek Post Office opened on 23 January 1881. It was renamed Landsborough Post Office in 1890. In 1912, the town became the administrative centre for the Landsborough Shire after separating from the Caboolture Shire. The chairman of the newly proclaimed Landsborough Divisional Board in 1912 was local businessman John Henry Tytherleigh, upon the board’s constitution as Landsborough Shire Council, he became it’s first chairman. The Landsborough School of Arts Memorial Hall was celebrated with a stump capping ceremony in November 1923, and later officially opened in May 1924 by Queensland Governor, Matthew Nathan. Cr John Grigor (eldest son of William and Mary Grigor of Bankfoot House, Glass House Mountains) had also been a councillor for the Landsborough area with the Caboolture Divisional Board before the formation of the Landsborough Shire Council. He later went on to be its chairman from 1924-1930 and 1930-1933.

In 1968 Landsborough Shire merged into the City of Caloundra and in 2008, Caloundra City amalgamated into the Sunshine Coast Regional Council. Interestingly, in the past, Landsborough was one of the larger towns of the Sunshine Coast hinterland due to its large logging industry. By comparison, Caloundra was just a small coastal fishing village to its east, as opposed to the large and very popular tourist destination it is today.